Halal & Haram


All land animals that feed off grass, leaves and seeds are generally halal (such as cows, sheep, deer, camel etc.), with the exception of pig which is explicitly mentioned to be Haram.

These Halal animals only become permissible to eat via Halal Slaughter.  This must be undertaken by a Muslim slaughterman causing minimum suffering to the animal whilst the animal is alive and with the pronounciation ‘bismillaahi Allahu akbar’ on each and every animal.  The only land animal permitted without slaughter is the locust.

Carnivorous/predatory land animals are generally Haram such as dog, cat, tiger, lions etc.


Birds that do not tear flesh with their claws are generally halal such as chicken, duck , pigeon, Quail etc. and birds which tear flesh with their claws (birds of prey) are haram such as eagle, crow and vulture.

Sea Animals

All animals from the sea are considered Halal according to all schools except hanafi school which considers only fish to be lawful and prawns to be makrooh (doubtful).  Sea animals do not require Zibah.


In auditing terms, any product considered mashbooh (doubtful) is not considered halal unless it is demonstrated as such.  Thus gelatine or renet can be from both halal or non-halal sources and must be demonstrated to be halal otherwise it is rejected.